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MCQ on antihypertensives: Page-4

Select the vasodilatory mediators from the following list.
acetylcholine

(A) P and Q

(B) R and S

(C) P,Q and R

(D) P,Q and S

:Adrenaline is vasoconstrictor that is released by sympathetic system that acts predominantly on alpha1 receptors. Acetylcholine acts on M3 receptors present on endothelium and releases nitric oxide. Bradykinin opens potassium channels. Histamine produces all smooth muscle contraction except vascular smooth muscle. It acts through H1 receptors which are coupled with IP3/DAG and thus produce smooth muscle contraction such as bronchoconstriction. At the same time, histamine produces vasodilatation due to release of nitric oxide from endothelium.

Select the WRONG statement from the following

(A) Captopril is contraindicated in bilateral renal artery stenosis

(B) ACE inhibitors produce taste disturbances

(C) Thiol group in captopril binds to zinc in ACE

(D) Nitroprusside releases nitric oxide

Not all ACEI produce taste disturbances. Only captopril produces.

Select one of the drug that is NOT a PDE inhibitor

(A) Theophylline

(B) Cilostazol

(C) Minoxidil

(D) Dipyridamole

Identify the dopamine agonist from the following list of drugs.

(A) Chlorpromazine

(B) Levodopa

(C) Clozapine

(D) Fenlodapam

Which of the following drug targets are not preferred nowadays for treatement of hypertension due to possible side effects?
Angiotensin II receptor blockers

(A) Q

(B) R

(C) P and S

(D) P,Q and R

AT II blockers like sartans are good targets for hypertension. Diuretics also play important role in decreasing body volume and controlling sodium levels in the body and usually combined with other antihypertensives. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors like sildenafil increase cAMP/cGMP levels and produce hypotension at some lower level hence indicated for pulmonary hypertension. Ganglionic blockers block both parasympathetic and sympathetic ganglia and thus produce mixed systemic effects. Even they produce sufficient hypotension because of their unwanted effects like dry mouth, blurred vision they are less tolerated hence not indicated.