(A) P,Q and R
(B) Q and R
(C) P,Q and S
(D) P,R and S
Labetalol is a alpha and beta blocker which acts peripherally. Clonidine, moxonidine and methyldopa all are centrally acting antihypertensives.
Papaverine is an opium alkaloid that is present in the plants along with morphine and codeine. Opioids like morphine and codeine have analgesic effect whereas papaverine has smooth muscle relaxant activity due to inhibition of PDE.
(A) P and S
(B) Q only
(C) R only
(D) Q and R
ACEI inhibit the synthesis of AT II which is actually responsible for metabolism of bradykinin. Hence ACEI cause accumulation of bradykinin therefore produce dry cough.
(C) Dry cough
(D) Night mares
Propranolol is a non selective betablocker that can produce hypotension, decrease heart rate and inhibits sympathetic activity. Its side effects include bronchospasm, hypokalemia, cold sensation, fatigue and hypoglycemia. Propranolol is lipophilic that can easily cross blood brain barrier and produces night mares.
Shock is a hypotensive condition that can be treated based on the cause of the disorder. If it is due to loss of blood, an immediate blood transfusion is preferred. If it is due to cardiac damage that results in decreased cardiac output, then dobutamine is given to increase the cardiac output. If it is due to any allergic or hypersensitive reaction, adrenaline and corticosteroids are indicated. Epoprostenol is a vasodilator that prevents platelet aggregation .